Adipose derived stem cells are cells isolated from adipose tissue (depots of fat for storing energy ), such as the abdominal region. Because many people possess excess fat , and the harvest procedure is with low morbidity to the donors and is quite easy, which means large quantities of adipose-derived stem cells can be collected in a single procedure without the need for cell culture expansion, adipose tissue becomes an ideal large-scale source for research on clinical applications.
Importantly, unlike the human bone marrow stromal/stem stem cells, which are present at low frequency in the bone marrow, adipose stem cells can not only be retrieved in high number but easily be expanded in vitro.
Besides, adipose tissue are also an abundant source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). All of these specialties make adipose-derived stem cells a particular promise in the field of regenerative medicine.
Mesenchymal stem cells are capable of self-renewal and trilineage differentiation into adipocytes, chondroblasts, and osteoblasts. They are primarily isolated by Friedenstein and colleagues from the bone marrow of guinea pigs in 1970.
In humans, generally speaking, the MSCs reside in adult tissues, including bone marrow and adipose tissue. However, although we have referred many advantages of adipose-derived stem cells in the above, researchers and scientists has taken bone marrow-derived stem cells as the primary source of stem cells for tissue engineering applications in the past years.
Only in recent years, many recent studies have shown that subcutaneous adipose tissue provides a clear advantage over other stem cell sources as we’ve talked in the above. Various clinical trials were discussed in the field of regenerative medicine.
The adipose-derived stem cells might have the neural potential; they could provide help for in stroke treatment because of their abundance and easy harvesting, and a lot of experimental studies have shown the potential of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells for improving functional deficits and have led to the first clinical trials in stroke patients; The adipose tissue derived MSCs could also have potentials in treating kidney disease.
ASCs are under investigation for a variety of therapeutic applications. Although the mechanisms underlying the migration of ASCs remain to be determined, clarification of the roles of chemokine receptors and adhesion molecules on ASCs may lead to the development of therapeutic strategies to enhance the recruitment of cultured ASCs to injured or damaged tissue.
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